Access to clean water is crucial to every household. Contaminated water is known to cause diseases such as cholera. Water purification is essential to ensure consumption of clean water. Where the water comes from is important to determine whether if it is clean or it has been contaminated.
If you live near or have a pond and want to consume the water, you should consider purifying it first. There are several ways of water purification in ponds. The process is aimed maximize the effectiveness by making the water safe for drinking. The main cause of impurities is the algae growing in the pond.
The water near the surface contains a lot more oxygen as compared to the water at the bottom. The water close to the bottom is normally dark from the settling of organic matter and sand. Collecting the water from the bottom may cause fast deterioration of the filters.
Filtration of Water
The next step is filtering out the algae and pollutants. The filters should not be overworked since that will require excessive maintenance. Unfiltered water can be used for other things such as irrigation and watering live stocks, among other things. Any water to be consumed must go through the entire process of purification.
Sand filters are the most efficient and there are different types and each work differently.
- The pressurized rapid sand filter – it is a common filter which is used for purification. The process involves a backwash cycle and it is a great concern since the toxins can be released when the algae cells burst. For the process to be effective, there is the need for a coagulation step afterwards with a final filter thereafter.
- Slow sand filter – the work is facilitated by gravity. There is no backwash cycle in the process.
- Pre-coat filter – this filter can remove very small particles and requires an extensive maintenance to ensure that it operating properly.
When using sand filters, you should ensure that the sand filter is within an effective size which is between 0.2mm and 0.4mm.
Gravels are under layered so as to support the sand. By doing so, they ensure that the sand doesn’t shift or settle to the pipe underdrain openings. The gravel size should not exceed one inch.
Disinfection and Oxidation
Chlorine helps with both disinfecting and oxidizing. Chlorine residual levels for disinfection are set at 0.2 PPM after 20 minutes – this is under normal conditions. A high chlorine content is essential to remove most of the algae toxins and the chlorinator is supposed to be a positive displacement type. It should be checked on a regular basis to ensure that it is working fine and that there’s an adequate chlorine solution supply.
The entire purification process is very important to ensure the wellbeing of the consumers. It is important to test for any chlorine residual to be sure that the equipment are in operation.